Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis

Are you experiencing a burning sensation in your chest that just won’t go away? If so, you may be dealing with heartburn. This uncomfortable condition is not only a nuisance but can also be a sign of a more serious underlying issue. In this article, we will explore the common symptoms of heartburn and discuss how it is diagnosed. So, grab a cup of tea and sit back as we shed some light on this pesky ailment.

Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis

Causes of Heartburn

Excessive stomach acid

One of the primary causes of heartburn is the production of excessive stomach acid. When there is an overabundance of acid in the stomach, it can travel back up into the esophagus, causing irritation and the characteristic burning sensation of heartburn.

Weakened lower esophageal sphincter

The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a muscle that acts as a barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. When the LES is weakened, it can allow stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus, leading to the development of heartburn.

Hiatal hernia

A hiatal hernia occurs when a portion of the stomach pushes upward through the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdomen. This displacement of the stomach can weaken the LES and contribute to the onset of heartburn.

Certain foods and beverages

Certain foods and beverages can trigger heartburn in susceptible individuals. These include spicy or fatty foods, citrus fruits, tomato-based products, chocolate, caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks. It is important to be mindful of the potential triggers and avoid them to prevent heartburn episodes.

Symptoms of Heartburn

Burning sensation in the chest

One of the hallmark symptoms of heartburn is a burning sensation or discomfort in the chest area. This sensation is often described as a feeling of acid or warmth rising up from the stomach to the throat.

Regurgitation of stomach acid

Heartburn can also cause regurgitation of stomach acid, which presents as a sour or bitter taste in the mouth. It may feel like food or liquid is coming back up into the throat.

Chest pain

In some cases, heartburn can cause chest pain that may be mistaken for a heart-related issue. The pain is typically located behind the breastbone and may worsen when lying down or after eating.

Difficulty swallowing

Heartburn can make swallowing difficult and painful, especially when the esophagus becomes irritated from frequent exposure to stomach acid. This symptom should be evaluated by a medical professional to rule out any underlying conditions.

Sore throat

The acid reflux associated with heartburn can cause a persistent sore throat. This is due to the irritation and inflammation of the throat tissues caused by the stomach acid.

Persistent cough

Chronic heartburn can lead to a persistent cough, as the acid irritates the throat and triggers the body’s natural response to clear the airway.

When to Seek Medical Help

Frequent or severe symptoms

If you experience heartburn symptoms on a frequent basis or if they are particularly severe, it is advisable to seek medical help. Persistent symptoms may indicate an underlying condition that requires medical evaluation and treatment.

Symptoms worsening over time

If your heartburn symptoms worsen over time or become more frequent, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional. Changes in symptoms may suggest a need for further investigation or adjustment of treatment.

Presence of other concerning symptoms

If you experience additional concerning symptoms alongside heartburn, such as unintended weight loss, difficulty swallowing, or severe chest pain, it is crucial to seek medical help immediately. These symptoms could be indicative of more serious conditions that require prompt attention and diagnosis.

Self-Diagnosis and Self-Treatment

Keeping a heartburn journal

A helpful way to identify potential triggers for your heartburn is to keep a journal of your symptoms and record the foods, beverages, and activities before each episode. This can help you identify patterns or specific triggers that can be avoided in the future.

Avoiding trigger foods

As mentioned earlier, certain foods and beverages can trigger heartburn. By identifying and avoiding these trigger foods, individuals can often reduce the frequency and severity of their episodes. Common trigger foods include spicy and fatty foods, citrus fruits, tomato-based products, chocolate, caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks.

Elevating the head while sleeping

To alleviate nighttime heartburn, it is often helpful to elevate the head of the bed. By using additional pillows to prop up your upper body or by using a specially designed wedge pillow, you can reduce the likelihood of stomach acid flowing back into the esophagus while lying down.

Taking over-the-counter antacids

Over-the-counter antacids, such as calcium carbonate or aluminum hydroxide, can help neutralize stomach acid and provide temporary relief from heartburn symptoms. These medications should be taken as directed and are generally safe for occasional use. However, if symptoms persist or worsen, it is important to consult a healthcare professional.

Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis

Medical Diagnosis of Heartburn

Physical examination and medical history

During a medical evaluation for heartburn, a healthcare professional will typically perform a physical examination, which may include palpating the abdomen and listening to the chest with a stethoscope. They will also ask about the patient’s medical history, lifestyle, and symptoms to guide the diagnostic process.

Upper endoscopy

An upper endoscopy involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera into the throat and down into the esophagus and stomach. This procedure allows the healthcare provider to visually inspect the esophagus for signs of inflammation or damage caused by acid reflux.

Esophageal pH monitoring

Esophageal pH monitoring measures the acidity levels in the esophagus over a period of time. It helps in determining if acid reflux is occurring and the frequency and duration of the episodes. This is often done by placing a small pH sensor inside the esophagus.

Esophageal manometry

Esophageal manometry measures the strength and coordination of the muscles in the esophagus. This can help determine if there is any abnormality in the movement of food and liquids down the esophagus, which may contribute to the development of heartburn.

Barium swallow test

A barium swallow test involves drinking a special liquid containing barium, which helps visualize the esophagus, stomach, and upper gastrointestinal tract on X-rays. This test can help identify structural abnormalities or functional issues that may be causing or contributing to heartburn.

Differential Diagnosis

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

GERD is a chronic condition characterized by frequent episodes of heartburn and acid reflux. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter is weakened or malfunctions, allowing stomach acid to repeatedly flow back into the esophagus.

Peptic ulcer disease

Peptic ulcer disease refers to the formation of open sores in the lining of the stomach or upper part of the small intestine. These ulcers can cause similar symptoms to heartburn, such as burning pain in the chest or abdomen.

Gallbladder disease

Gallbladder disease, particularly gallstones, can cause symptoms that mimic heartburn. The pain may be felt in the upper abdomen and may be accompanied by bloating, nausea, and vomiting.

Esophageal motility disorders

Esophageal motility disorders affect the coordinated movement of the muscles in the esophagus, leading to difficulty swallowing and increased risk of acid reflux. These disorders can often be diagnosed through esophageal manometry.

Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis

Complications of Untreated Heartburn


Untreated or chronic heartburn can lead to inflammation of the esophagus, a condition known as esophagitis. This inflammation can cause discomfort, pain, and difficulty swallowing.

Esophageal stricture

Continued exposure to stomach acid can cause the esophagus to narrow, resulting in a condition known as esophageal stricture. This narrowing can make swallowing difficult and may require additional medical intervention to alleviate the symptoms.

Barrett’s esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus is a condition in which the lining of the esophagus undergoes changes due to long-term acid exposure. It is considered a precancerous condition, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.

Esophageal cancer

In rare cases, untreated and long-term heartburn can lead to the development of esophageal cancer. Regular medical evaluation, especially for individuals with persistent or severe symptoms, is key in detecting any potential complications early.

Treatment Options for Heartburn

Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes can be an effective approach to managing heartburn. These may include avoiding trigger foods and beverages, eating smaller meals, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and avoiding lying down immediately after eating.


Several medications can help alleviate the symptoms of heartburn and reduce stomach acid production. These include antacids, H2 blockers, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The choice of medication will depend on the severity and frequency of symptoms, as well as individual factors.

Surgical interventions

In severe cases where lifestyle changes and medications fail to provide relief, surgical interventions may be considered. These options include fundoplication, a procedure to tighten the LES, and magnetic sphincter augmentation, which involves placing a magnetic device around the LES to reinforce its function.

Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis

Prevention of Heartburn

Avoid trigger foods and beverages

One of the best ways to prevent heartburn is to avoid trigger foods and beverages. By identifying and eliminating these triggers from your diet, you can significantly reduce the occurrence of heartburn episodes.

Eat smaller meals and avoid overeating

Eating smaller, more frequent meals can help prevent heartburn by reducing the amount of food in the stomach and minimizing pressure on the LES. Overeating can put excessive pressure on the stomach, leading to acid reflux and heartburn.

Maintain a healthy weight

Excess weight can contribute to the development of heartburn and exacerbate symptoms. By maintaining a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular exercise, you can reduce the risk of heartburn and its associated complications.

Avoid lying down immediately after eating

Allowing your body time to digest food before lying down can help prevent heartburn. Gravity plays a role in keeping stomach acid in the stomach, so staying upright for at least two to three hours after eating can reduce the likelihood of acid reflux.


Heartburn is a common condition that can cause discomfort and affect the quality of life. While the occasional episode of heartburn is generally harmless, chronic or severe symptoms should not be ignored. Seeking medical help when necessary, adopting lifestyle changes, and following medical treatment recommendations can help manage heartburn effectively and reduce the risk of complications. Remember to listen to your body, take note of trigger foods, and make necessary adjustments to prevent the recurrence of heartburn episodes. With the right approach, heartburn can be effectively managed, allowing you to enjoy a comfortable and symptom-free life.

Heartburn Symptoms and Diagnosis