Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

So you’ve heard the term “Mitral Valve Prolapse” and you’re curious to know what it actually means? Well, you’ve come to the right place. In this article, we’ll be exploring the causes and symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse, a condition that affects the valve separating the upper and lower chambers of your heart. Grab a cup of tea, sit back, and let’s unravel the mysteries of this intriguing ailment together.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

Causes of Mitral Valve Prolapse

Genetic factors

Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is often believed to have a strong genetic component. Research has shown that it tends to run in families, and individuals with a family history of MVP are more likely to develop the condition themselves. Mutations in certain genes have also been identified as potential causes of MVP. However, it is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee the development of the condition.

Connective tissue disorders

Connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, have been linked to an increased risk of developing MVP. These conditions affect the structure and function of connective tissues throughout the body, including those in the heart valves. The weakened connective tissues can lead to stretching and malformation of the mitral valve, resulting in MVP.

Gender and age

MVP is more common in women than in men. It often becomes apparent during adolescence or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. The reasons for the gender and age-related differences in MVP prevalence are not entirely understood, but hormonal factors may play a role. Estrogen, in particular, has been implicated in the development and progression of MVP.

Other medical conditions

Certain medical conditions may increase the likelihood of developing MVP. These include conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure), aortic valve disease, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These underlying conditions can affect the structure and function of the heart, potentially leading to the development of MVP.

Use of certain medications

In rare cases, the use of certain medications has been associated with the development of MVP. For example, long-term use of stimulant medications, such as those used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has been linked to an increased risk of MVP. Additionally, certain drugs used to treat mood disorders, such as tricyclic antidepressants, have also been associated with MVP.

Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mild or no symptoms

In many cases, individuals with MVP may experience no symptoms or only mild symptoms. They may be unaware of the condition until it is detected during a routine medical examination. This is referred to as asymptomatic MVP. It is important to note that even if no symptoms are present, regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are still necessary to ensure the condition does not progress.

Chest discomfort

Chest discomfort, often described as a sharp or squeezing pain, is a common symptom of MVP. It can occur due to the stretching or bulging of the mitral valve, which may cause irritation or inflammation of the surrounding tissues. Chest discomfort related to MVP is typically not severe and usually subsides on its own or with rest.

Irregular heartbeat

An irregular heartbeat, also known as palpitations, is another symptom that individuals with MVP may experience. This can manifest as the sensation of a racing, fluttering, or pounding heart. It is important to monitor and report any changes in heart rhythm to a healthcare professional to determine if further evaluation or treatment is necessary.


Fatigue, or excessive tiredness, is a symptom that can be associated with MVP. The inefficient flow of blood through the mitral valve can lead to decreased oxygen supply to the body’s tissues, resulting in feelings of fatigue and decreased energy levels. It is important for individuals experiencing fatigue to discuss their symptoms with a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate management.

Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, or dyspnea, can occur in individuals with MVP due to the reduced efficiency of blood flow through the heart. The mitral valve’s inability to close properly can result in blood flowing backward into the left atrium, leading to fluid accumulation in the lungs. This can cause feelings of breathlessness or difficulty breathing, particularly during physical activity or exertion.

Dizziness or lightheadedness

Dizziness or lightheadedness can be a symptom of MVP. The irregular flow of blood through the mitral valve can affect the blood supply to the brain, resulting in feelings of dizziness or a sensation of being lightheaded. It is important to discuss these symptoms with a healthcare professional to determine the cause and appropriate management.

Heart palpitations

Heart palpitations, or the awareness of an irregular or rapid heartbeat, are common in individuals with MVP. These palpitations can occur at rest or during physical activity and are typically harmless. However, it is important to monitor and report any changes in heart rhythm to a healthcare professional for evaluation and appropriate management.

Anxiety or panic attacks

Some individuals with MVP may experience anxiety or panic attacks. The uncertainty and fear associated with heart-related symptoms can contribute to heightened anxiety levels. It is important for individuals experiencing anxiety or panic attacks to seek support from healthcare professionals, who can provide guidance and appropriate management strategies.

Migraine headaches

Migraine headaches have been associated with MVP, although the exact relationship between the two is not fully understood. It is believed that the irregular blood flow through the mitral valve may trigger changes in blood vessel function, leading to migraines. It is important for individuals experiencing migraines to seek medical evaluation and appropriate treatment options.


Depression is a mental health condition that can be associated with MVP. The impact of living with a chronic medical condition, as well as the symptoms and limitations it imposes, can contribute to feelings of sadness and depression. It is important for individuals experiencing symptoms of depression to seek support from healthcare professionals, who can provide appropriate guidance and treatment options.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

Diagnosing Mitral Valve Prolapse

Physical examination

A physical examination is often the first step in diagnosing MVP. During the examination, a healthcare professional listens to the heart with a stethoscope to detect any abnormal heart sounds, such as a click or a murmur. These sounds can be indicative of MVP and may prompt further evaluation.


An echocardiogram is a commonly used test to diagnose MVP. It uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart and its structures. The images obtained through an echocardiogram can provide information about the size, shape, and function of the mitral valve, allowing healthcare professionals to assess for any abnormalities or signs of MVP.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

An electrocardiogram, or ECG, measures the electrical activity of the heart. It can be used to detect irregular heart rhythms or other abnormalities in the heart’s electrical conduction system, which may be associated with MVP. An ECG is a non-invasive and painless test that involves attaching small electrodes to the chest, arms, and legs to record the heart’s electrical signals.

Stress test

A stress test, also known as an exercise stress test, evaluates how the heart functions during physical activity. It involves walking on a treadmill or using a stationary bike while the heart’s electrical activity, blood pressure, and heart rate are monitored. A stress test can help healthcare professionals determine if MVP is causing any limitations in heart function or if additional testing or treatment is needed.

Holter monitor

A Holter monitor is a portable device that records the heart’s electrical activity over a prolonged period, usually 24 to 48 hours. It is worn by the individual throughout their daily activities, allowing healthcare professionals to gather data on any irregularities or abnormalities in the heart’s rhythm. This information can help in diagnosing MVP and determining appropriate management strategies.

Complications of Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral valve regurgitation

One of the main complications of MVP is mitral valve regurgitation, which occurs when the mitral valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium. Over time, this can lead to enlargement of the left atrium and changes in the structure of the heart. If severe, mitral valve regurgitation may require surgical intervention to repair or replace the valve.

Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, including the heart valves. Individuals with MVP may be at a slightly higher risk of developing infective endocarditis compared to the general population. It is important for individuals with MVP to take precautions, such as practicing good dental hygiene and using antibiotics as prescribed by their healthcare professional, to reduce the risk of infective endocarditis.


Arrhythmias, or abnormal heart rhythms, can occur in individuals with MVP. The irregular flow of blood through the mitral valve can disrupt the heart’s electrical conduction system, leading to arrhythmias. In some cases, arrhythmias may cause symptoms such as palpitations or dizziness and may require medical intervention to restore normal heart rhythm.

Heart failure

While it is rare, severe cases of MVP can lead to heart failure. Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. The stretching and damage to the mitral valve in MVP can contribute to the development or worsening of heart failure symptoms. Treatment options for heart failure may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or surgical interventions, depending on the severity of the condition.


Individuals with MVP may have an increased risk of developing blood clots, which can potentially travel to the brain and cause a stroke. The irregular blood flow through the mitral valve, as well as the potential enlargement of the left atrium, can contribute to the formation of blood clots. It is important for individuals with MVP to discuss their stroke risk with a healthcare professional and implement appropriate preventive measures.

Sudden cardiac arrest

While rare, MVP can occasionally lead to sudden cardiac arrest, a life-threatening condition in which the heart suddenly stops beating. Sudden cardiac arrest can occur due to arrhythmias or other heart-related complications associated with MVP. It is important for individuals with MVP to be aware of the signs of cardiac arrest and seek immediate medical attention if they occur.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

Treatment options for Mitral Valve Prolapse


In cases of mild or asymptomatic MVP, a healthcare professional may recommend a watch-and-wait approach. This involves regular monitoring and follow-up appointments to assess any changes in symptoms or the progression of the condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding stimulants and managing stress, may be recommended to minimize symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.


Medications may be prescribed to manage the symptoms associated with MVP or to prevent complications. Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or other antiarrhythmic medications may be prescribed to regulate heart rhythm and prevent arrhythmias. In some cases, medications to manage high blood pressure or prevent blood clots may also be recommended.


Surgical intervention may be necessary in severe cases of MVP or when complications arise. The specific surgical procedure will depend on the individual’s condition and the severity of their symptoms. Mitral valve repair, in which the mitral valve is surgically reshaped or repaired, is preferred over mitral valve replacement whenever possible. However, in some cases, mitral valve replacement may be necessary.

Lifestyle changes

Adopting healthy lifestyle habits can help manage the symptoms of MVP and reduce the risk of complications. This includes maintaining a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, managing stress, avoiding stimulants like caffeine or tobacco, and getting regular medical check-ups. Making these lifestyle changes can contribute to overall heart health and improve the prognosis for individuals with MVP.

Preventing Mitral Valve Prolapse

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is important for preventing the development or progression of MVP. This includes eating a balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, getting enough sleep, and avoiding excessive alcohol consumption. By taking care of your overall health, you can reduce the risk of developing heart-related conditions like MVP.

Regular exercise

Engaging in regular physical activity is beneficial for overall cardiovascular health. It helps to strengthen the heart, improve blood flow, and maintain a healthy weight. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any exercise program, especially if you have a pre-existing heart condition like MVP. They can provide guidance on appropriate activities and any necessary precautions.

Eating a balanced diet

A balanced diet plays a crucial role in maintaining heart health. It should include a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Limiting the intake of processed foods, saturated fats, and sodium can help reduce the risk of heart-related conditions. Consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian for personalized dietary recommendations.

Managing stress

Effective stress management is important for overall health, including heart health. Chronic stress can contribute to the development or worsening of heart-related conditions, including MVP. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga, or engaging in hobbies and activities you enjoy can help manage stress levels.

Avoiding stimulants

Stimulants such as caffeine and tobacco can impact heart health and potentially worsen the symptoms of MVP. It is recommended to limit or avoid the consumption of caffeinated beverages, such as coffee and energy drinks, and to quit or avoid smoking. Consult with a healthcare professional for guidance on managing or quitting stimulant use.

Regular medical check-ups

Regular medical check-ups are essential for maintaining good overall health and preventing the development or progression of heart-related conditions. Routine examinations and screenings can help detect any abnormalities or changes in heart structure or function, allowing for early intervention and appropriate management if necessary. It is important to adhere to scheduled appointments and follow the recommendations of healthcare professionals.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

Living with Mitral Valve Prolapse

Understanding the condition

Understanding the nature of MVP is important for individuals living with the condition. Educating yourself about the causes, symptoms, and potential complications can help you make informed decisions about your health and treatment options. It also allows you to properly communicate your needs and concerns with healthcare professionals.

Adhering to treatment plans

Adhering to the treatment plan recommended by your healthcare professional is crucial for managing MVP effectively. This includes taking medications as prescribed, attending scheduled follow-up appointments, and following any lifestyle recommendations. Regular monitoring and communication with healthcare professionals can help ensure that any changes in symptoms or progression of the condition are detected early.

Monitoring symptoms

Monitoring your symptoms and being aware of any changes is important when living with MVP. By keeping track of your symptoms and any triggers, you can identify patterns or potential worsening of the condition. It is important to discuss any new or concerning symptoms with your healthcare professional to determine appropriate management strategies.

Managing stress and anxiety

Living with a chronic medical condition like MVP can sometimes be stressful and anxiety-inducing. It is important to develop healthy strategies for managing stress and anxiety. This may involve practicing relaxation techniques, engaging in regular physical activity, seeking support from loved ones or healthcare professionals, or exploring therapy or counseling options.

Support from healthcare professionals

Building a strong support system that includes healthcare professionals is essential when living with MVP. Regular check-ups, consultations, and open communication with your healthcare team can provide valuable guidance and support for managing the condition. They can help address any concerns, provide education, monitor your condition, and make any necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.

Support groups and counseling

Seeking support from others who are also living with MVP can be beneficial. Support groups, either in-person or online, provide a platform for individuals to connect, share experiences, and offer support to one another. Additionally, seeking counseling or therapy can be helpful for managing any emotional or psychological challenges that may arise from living with MVP.

Potential complications during pregnancy

Increased risk of arrhythmias

Pregnancy can pose unique challenges for individuals with MVP. Hormonal changes and increased blood volume can place additional strain on the heart, potentially increasing the risk of arrhythmias. It is important for individuals with MVP who are considering or are already pregnant to discuss their condition with their healthcare professional to ensure appropriate monitoring and management during pregnancy.

Increased risk of heart failure

Pregnancy places additional demand on the heart’s function and may exacerbate any existing issues or limitations caused by MVP. In some cases, pregnancy can lead to heart failure, particularly in individuals with severe MVP. Close monitoring by a healthcare professional experienced in managing high-risk pregnancies is crucial to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the baby.

Increased risk of infective endocarditis

Pregnancy itself does not increase the risk of infective endocarditis. However, individuals with MVP are already at a slightly higher risk of developing this condition. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene and follow any appropriate guidelines, such as antibiotic prophylaxis as recommended by a healthcare professional, to minimize the risk of infective endocarditis.

Management and monitoring during pregnancy

Pregnant individuals with MVP will require specialized care and monitoring throughout their pregnancy. This may include regular check-ups, echocardiograms, and other tests to assess heart function and detect any changes or complications. Close collaboration between the obstetrician and a healthcare professional experienced in managing cardiac conditions is essential to ensure optimal care during pregnancy.

Considerations for delivery and postpartum care

Individuals with MVP may require additional monitoring and considerations during the delivery process. In some cases, a healthcare professional may recommend a specific mode of delivery, such as a cesarean section, to minimize stress on the heart. Adequate postpartum care and support are also important to ensure a smooth recovery and manage any potential complications that may arise after childbirth.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes and Symptoms

Hormonal influence on Mitral Valve Prolapse

Effect of estrogen

Estrogen, a female sex hormone, has been implicated in the development and progression of MVP. It is believed that estrogen may contribute to the softening of connective tissues, including those in the heart valves, making them more prone to stretching or prolapse. The hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and with the use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can potentially affect the symptoms and progression of MVP.

Effect of hormonal contraceptive methods

The use of hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, patches, or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs), can potentially impact MVP symptoms or the progression of the condition. Some individuals may experience an increase in symptoms, such as palpitations, while others may notice no changes. It is important to discuss your individual circumstances and any concerns with a healthcare professional to determine the most suitable contraceptive method.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment option used to relieve menopause symptoms by replacing declining levels of estrogen and progesterone. HRT may impact the symptoms and progression of MVP, as estrogen can potentially affect the soft tissues in the heart valves. It is important to discuss the use of HRT with a healthcare professional, weighing the potential benefits and risks on an individual basis.

Research and advancements in Mitral Valve Prolapse treatment

Minimally invasive surgical techniques

Advancements in surgical techniques have led to the development of minimally invasive procedures for treating MVP. These procedures involve smaller incisions and the use of specialized tools and instruments. Minimally invasive surgical techniques can offer shorter recovery times, reduced pain, and improved cosmetic outcomes compared to traditional open-heart surgery. Individuals considering surgical intervention for MVP should discuss these options with a healthcare professional.

New medications

Ongoing research continues to explore the potential of new medications for the management of MVP. A variety of medications targeting different aspects of the condition, such as regulating heart rhythm or preventing blood clots, are being investigated. However, it is important to note that further studies are needed to establish the safety and effectiveness of these medications before they become widely available.

Advances in implantable devices

Advances in implantable devices, such as cardiac resynchronization therapy devices or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), are also being explored as treatment options for MVP. These devices can help regulate heart rhythm and manage potential complications associated with MVP. However, the use of implantable devices in MVP requires careful consideration and individualized assessment by healthcare professionals.

Gene therapy research

Gene therapy research is an emerging field that holds promising potential for the treatment of MVP. By targeting specific genes associated with the condition, researchers are exploring the possibility of correcting the underlying genetic abnormalities that contribute to the development of MVP. However, gene therapy for MVP is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to evaluate its safety and long-term effectiveness.

In conclusion, Mitral Valve Prolapse is a condition that can have various causes, including genetic factors and connective tissue disorders. It is more common in women and often becomes apparent during adolescence or early adulthood. Identifying and diagnosing MVP involves a combination of physical examinations, imaging tests, and heart monitoring. Complications of MVP can include mitral valve regurgitation, infective endocarditis, arrhythmias, heart failure, stroke, and sudden cardiac arrest. Treatment options for MVP range from observation and medications to surgery and lifestyle changes. Preventive measures include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, a balanced diet, stress management, avoiding stimulants, and regular medical check-ups. Living with MVP requires understanding the condition, adhering to treatment plans, monitoring symptoms, managing stress and anxiety, and seeking support from healthcare professionals and support groups. Special considerations and monitoring are required during pregnancy, as hormonal changes can impact the symptoms and progression of MVP. Hormonal influence on MVP, including the effect of estrogen and hormonal contraceptives or HRT, should be discussed with healthcare professionals. Ongoing research in MVP treatment aims to advance surgical techniques, develop new medications, explore implantable devices, and investigate the potential of gene therapy. With continued advancements and improvements in the understanding and management of MVP, individuals living with this condition can lead healthy and fulfilling lives.