Understanding the Causes of Heartburn

Heartburn is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. If you’ve ever experienced that burning sensation in your chest or discomfort in your throat after a meal, then you know how unpleasant it can be. But have you ever wondered what causes heartburn? In this article, we will explore the various factors that can contribute to this digestive issue, ranging from your diet and lifestyle choices to certain medical conditions. By gaining a deeper understanding of the causes of heartburn, you’ll be better equipped to make informed decisions and take steps towards preventing and managing this uncomfortable condition.

Understanding the Causes of Heartburn

Dietary factors

1.1 Spicy and acidic foods

One common dietary factor that can trigger heartburn is consuming spicy and acidic foods. Spices such as chili peppers, hot sauce, and salsa can irritate the lining of the esophagus, leading to a burning sensation in the chest. Similarly, acidic foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, and vinegar can increase acid production in the stomach, exacerbating heartburn symptoms. While these foods may not affect everyone in the same way, it is advisable to observe your own tolerance and avoid or limit their consumption if they trigger discomfort.

1.2 Fatty and fried foods

Fatty and fried foods can also contribute to the development of heartburn. These types of foods take longer to digest, which can increase the amount of stomach acid produced and put pressure on the esophagus. Examples of such foods include greasy hamburgers, french fries, and deep-fried snacks. Avoiding or reducing the intake of fatty and fried foods can help alleviate heartburn symptoms and promote overall digestive health.

1.3 Citrus fruits and juices

As mentioned earlier, citrus fruits and juices are known to be acidic and can stimulate acid production in the stomach. While citrus fruits like oranges and grapefruits are packed with essential nutrients, their consumption should be moderated or avoided by individuals who experience heartburn. It is important to note that alternative sources of vitamins, such as non-acidic fruits and dietary supplements, can be considered to maintain a balanced diet while minimizing the risk of heartburn.

1.4 Chocolate and caffeine

Indulging in chocolate treats and caffeinated beverages may contribute to the occurrence of heartburn. Chocolate contains a compound called theobromine, which can relax the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the muscle responsible for preventing stomach acid from flowing back into the esophagus. Coffee, tea, and other caffeinated drinks can also relax the LES and increase the production of stomach acid. While it may be difficult to completely eliminate these favorites from your diet, reducing their consumption can help manage heartburn symptoms.

1.5 Alcohol and carbonated drinks

Alcohol and carbonated drinks can be triggers for heartburn. Alcohol, particularly when consumed in excess, can irritate the lining of the esophagus and increase stomach acid production. Carbonated drinks, such as soda and sparkling water, can have a similar effect due to the bubbles and added carbonation. It is advisable to limit or avoid the consumption of alcohol and carbonated beverages, opting instead for non-alcoholic alternatives and still water to reduce the risk of heartburn.

Lifestyle and habits

2.1 Overeating

Overeating is a common lifestyle factor that can contribute to the development of heartburn. When you consume large portions of food in one sitting, it puts pressure on the stomach and can cause the contents to reflux into the esophagus. This pressure can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter, making it easier for stomach acid to flow back up. To prevent heartburn, it is recommended to practice portion control, eat smaller meals throughout the day, and chew food thoroughly to aid digestion.

2.2 Eating too close to bedtime

Eating a heavy meal or snacking too close to bedtime can increase the likelihood of experiencing heartburn during the night. When you lie down after eating, gravity is no longer helping to keep stomach acid in the stomach. This can result in acid reflux and heartburn. It is recommended to allow at least two to three hours between your last meal and bedtime to allow for proper digestion and reduce the risk of nighttime heartburn.

2.3 Smoking

Smoking is not only detrimental to overall health but can also contribute to heartburn. Smoking can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus more easily. In addition, smoking can increase stomach acid production, further exacerbating heartburn symptoms. Quitting smoking is beneficial for many aspects of health, including reducing the risk of heartburn and improving overall digestion.

2.4 Obesity and excess weight

Being overweight or obese is a lifestyle factor that can increase the risk of developing heartburn. Excess weight can put pressure on the stomach, leading to the displacement of stomach contents and causing acid reflux. Additionally, obesity can contribute to the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, making it easier for stomach acid to flow back up into the esophagus. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet can help prevent heartburn and promote overall wellness.

2.5 Stress and lack of sleep

Stress and lack of sleep can have a significant impact on the digestive system, including the occurrence of heartburn. High levels of stress and poor sleep quality can disrupt the function of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to increased acid production and susceptibility to heartburn. Engaging in stress-reducing activities, practicing relaxation techniques, and prioritizing sufficient sleep can help manage heartburn symptoms and promote a healthy digestive system.

Understanding the Causes of Heartburn


3.1 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and aspirin are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. However, these medications can irritate the lining of the stomach and increase the risk of heartburn. NSAIDs inhibit the production of protective substances in the stomach, which can result in excess stomach acid. If you are prone to heartburn, it is advisable to consult with your healthcare provider and explore alternative pain relief options.

3.2 Antibiotics and certain medications

Certain medications, including antibiotics, can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the digestive system and potentially trigger heartburn. Antibiotics can kill off the beneficial bacteria in the gut, allowing harmful bacteria to proliferate and interfere with the normal digestion process. In some cases, this disruption can lead to an increase in acid production and subsequent heartburn. If you are prescribed antibiotics or other medications that may affect digestion, discuss potential side effects with your healthcare provider.

3.3 Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers

Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers are medications commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure and certain heart conditions. These medications can relax the muscles, including the lower esophageal sphincter, which can result in the reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus. If you experience heartburn while taking these medications, it is important to talk to your healthcare provider about potential alternatives or adjustments to your treatment plan.

3.4 Iron supplements and painkillers

Iron supplements are often prescribed to individuals with low iron levels, such as those with anemia. While iron is an essential nutrient, it can cause irritation to the stomach lining, leading to heartburn. Taking iron supplements with food or discussing alternative iron supplementation methods with your healthcare provider may help alleviate this side effect. Additionally, certain painkillers, such as non-prescription NSAIDs, can also contribute to heartburn. It is advisable to follow recommended dosages and discuss potential alternatives with your healthcare provider if heartburn persists.

3.5 Hormonal medications

Hormonal medications, such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, can affect the digestive system and potentially lead to heartburn. These medications can relax the lower esophageal sphincter, making it easier for stomach acid to flow back up into the esophagus. If you experience heartburn while taking hormonal medications, it is important to consult with your healthcare provider to discuss potential solutions or adjustments to your treatment plan.

Hiatal hernia

4.1 Definition and causes

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of the stomach pushes through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. The diaphragm normally has an opening called the hiatus, through which the esophagus passes and connects to the stomach. A hiatal hernia can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter and disrupt the barrier that prevents stomach acid from refluxing into the esophagus. The exact cause of hiatal hernias is not always clear, but factors such as obesity, aging, and injury to the area can contribute to their development.

4.2 Types of hiatal hernia

There are two main types of hiatal hernia: sliding hiatal hernia and paraesophageal hiatal hernia. Sliding hiatal hernias are the most common and occur when the junction where the esophagus meets the stomach slides up into the chest cavity. Paraesophageal hiatal hernias, on the other hand, involve a portion of the stomach protruding through the diaphragm alongside the esophagus. Both types can contribute to the development of heartburn symptoms.

4.3 Impact on heartburn development

Having a hiatal hernia can increase the risk of experiencing heartburn. The herniated portion of the stomach can disrupt the function of the lower esophageal sphincter, allowing stomach acid to reflux into the esophagus more easily. This can lead to the characteristic burning sensation associated with heartburn. However, it is important to note that not all individuals with hiatal hernias will experience heartburn, and not all cases of heartburn are caused by hiatal hernias.

4.4 Treatment options

Treatment options for hiatal hernias and associated heartburn symptoms depend on the severity and impact on quality of life. Mild cases may be managed through lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter antacids to relieve heartburn symptoms. If symptoms persist or are severe, medical intervention may be necessary. Prescription medications that reduce stomach acid production or surgical procedures to repair the hiatal hernia and strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter can be considered. Consulting with a healthcare provider is essential for proper diagnosis and personalized treatment recommendations.

Understanding the Causes of Heartburn

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

5.1 Definition and symptoms

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition characterized by frequent and persistent acid reflux. It occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter does not function properly, allowing stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus. Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, a burning sensation in the chest, regurgitation of food or liquid, difficulty swallowing, and a persistent cough.

5.2 Causes and risk factors

Multiple factors can contribute to the development of GERD. One of the primary causes is a weakened or dysfunctional lower esophageal sphincter, which can result from factors such as hiatal hernias, obesity, and pregnancy. Other risk factors include smoking, certain medications, and a history of gastrointestinal disorders. It is important to note that while these factors can increase the likelihood of experiencing GERD, not everyone with these risk factors will necessarily develop the condition.

5.3 Diagnosing GERD

Diagnosing GERD typically involves a combination of symptoms assessment, medical history evaluation, and diagnostic tests. Your healthcare provider will inquire about your symptoms and any personal or family history of digestive disorders. They may also recommend tests such as an upper endoscopy, where a small camera is used to examine the esophagus and stomach, or a pH test, which measures the amount of acid in the esophagus. These tests help confirm GERD and rule out other potential causes of your symptoms.

5.4 Treatment and management

Treatment for GERD aims to alleviate symptoms, heal any esophageal damage, and prevent complications. Lifestyle modifications play a crucial role and include avoiding trigger foods and beverages, elevating the head of the bed, losing weight if necessary, and quitting smoking. Over-the-counter antacids and medications that reduce stomach acid production can provide temporary relief. In severe cases, prescription medications or surgical interventions may be necessary. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to find the most appropriate treatment plan for your specific situation.

5.5 Complications of untreated GERD

When left untreated, GERD can lead to a range of complications. Chronic exposure to stomach acid can cause inflammation and damage to the lining of the esophagus, leading to a condition known as esophagitis. Over time, this inflammation can result in the formation of scar tissue, narrowing the esophagus and making swallowing difficult. Untreated GERD can also increase the risk of developing a condition called Barrett’s esophagus, which has the potential to progress to esophageal cancer. Seeking treatment for GERD can help prevent these complications and ensure long-term gastrointestinal health.


6.1 Hormonal changes and pressure on the stomach

During pregnancy, hormonal changes can relax the muscles, including the lower esophageal sphincter. This relaxation is necessary to accommodate the growing fetus and prepare the body for childbirth but can also lead to an increased risk of heartburn. Additionally, as the pregnancy progresses, the growing uterus can exert pressure on the stomach, causing stomach acid to reflux into the esophagus. These physiological changes can contribute to the heightened incidence of heartburn during pregnancy.

6.2 Increased risk of heartburn during pregnancy

Heartburn is a common occurrence during pregnancy, with up to 80% of pregnant women experiencing it at some point. The combination of hormonal changes, increased pressure on the stomach, and changes in the positioning of organs can make pregnant women more susceptible to heartburn. It is important for expectant mothers to be mindful of their dietary choices and implement lifestyle modifications to manage heartburn symptoms.

6.3 Managing heartburn in pregnant women

Fortunately, there are several strategies that pregnant women can employ to manage heartburn. Eating smaller, more frequent meals can help prevent the stomach from becoming overly full and reduce the risk of heartburn. It is also advisable to avoid spicy and greasy foods, carbonated drinks, and citrus fruits, as these can exacerbate heartburn symptoms. Elevating the head of the bed, wearing loose-fitting clothing, and practicing relaxation techniques can provide additional relief. However, it is crucial for pregnant women to consult with their healthcare provider before taking any medications or supplements to manage heartburn during pregnancy.

6.4 Safe treatment options

When it comes to treating heartburn during pregnancy, it is important to prioritize the safety of both the expectant mother and the developing fetus. Non-pharmacological approaches should be the first line of defense, including dietary modifications, lifestyle adjustments, and home remedies. If symptoms persist or become severe, medical supervision and guidance are essential. Some over-the-counter antacids may be deemed safe for use during pregnancy, but it is crucial to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any medication regimen.

Understanding the Causes of Heartburn

Esophageal abnormalities

7.1 Esophagitis and erosive esophagitis

Esophagitis refers to inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by prolonged exposure to stomach acid. When left untreated, esophagitis can progress to erosive esophagitis, a condition characterized by the formation of ulcers in the esophageal lining. These ulcers can cause pain, difficulty swallowing, and bleeding. Esophagitis and erosive esophagitis can be closely related to the occurrence and severity of heartburn.

7.2 Barrett’s esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus is a condition that can occur as a result of long-term acid reflux and esophageal inflammation. It involves the transformation of the normal lining of the esophagus into tissue resembling that of the intestines. Barrett’s esophagus is considered a precancerous condition and may increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer in some individuals. Regular monitoring and early intervention can help manage and reduce the risk of this potential complication of untreated heartburn.

7.3 Esophageal strictures

Esophageal strictures are characterized by the narrowing of the esophagus, often as a result of chronic acid reflux and inflammation. The buildup of scar tissue can gradually constrict the esophagus, making it difficult to swallow and causing a feeling of food getting stuck. If left untreated, esophageal strictures can significantly impact quality of life. Treatment options may include medications to reduce inflammation, esophageal dilation to widen the narrowed area, or surgical interventions depending on the severity of the stricture.

7.4 Esophageal cancer

Although less common than other complications, long-term untreated heartburn can increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Chronic acid reflux and inflammation can lead to changes in the cells lining the esophagus, potentially progressing to cancerous cells. It is important to be aware of the symptoms of esophageal cancer, such as difficulty swallowing, unintended weight loss, chest pain, and persistent cough, and to seek medical attention if any concerns arise.

7.5 Relation to heartburn

Esophageal abnormalities, such as esophagitis, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal strictures, and esophageal cancer, can be closely linked to the occurrence and severity of heartburn. Prolonged or chronic heartburn can cause damage to the esophagus, leading to these abnormalities. It is crucial to seek medical evaluation and treatment for persistent or worsening heartburn symptoms to minimize the risk of developing esophageal complications.

Genetic factors

8.1 Family history and genetic predisposition

Family history and genetic predisposition play a role in an individual’s susceptibility to heartburn. If you have close relatives who experience heartburn or gastrointestinal disorders, there may be an increased likelihood of developing the condition. Genetic factors can influence the functioning of the lower esophageal sphincter, the production of stomach acid, and the sensitivity of the esophagus to acid reflux. While genetic factors cannot be altered, awareness of family history can be beneficial in identifying potential risk factors and seeking appropriate management strategies.

8.2 Role of specific genes

Various genes have been implicated in the development of heartburn and related conditions. For example, certain genetic variations can affect the production and function of proteins involved in maintaining the integrity of the esophageal lining or regulating stomach acid production. Other genes may influence the sensitivity or responsiveness of the esophageal nerves to acid reflux. The field of genetic research in relation to heartburn is still evolving, and further studies may reveal additional gene associations and provide insights into personalized treatment approaches.

8.3 Impact on susceptibility to heartburn

Genetic factors can impact an individual’s susceptibility to heartburn by influencing the functioning of the esophageal sphincter, stomach acid production, and the response of the esophagus to acid reflux. Some genetic variations may increase the likelihood of developing a hiatal hernia or contribute to a heightened sensitivity in the esophageal lining. While genetic factors are not the sole contributor to heartburn, they can interact with other lifestyle and environmental factors to increase the risk or severity of symptoms.

8.4 Future implications for treatment

The study of genetic factors in relation to heartburn holds potential for future advancements in treatment strategies. As researchers continue to identify specific genes and their influence on heartburn, personalized treatment approaches may be developed. Pharmacogenetic testing, which examines an individual’s genetic profile to guide medication selection and dosage, may become more common in the management of heartburn. Comprehensive understanding of genetic factors can contribute to the development of targeted therapies and improved outcomes for individuals with heartburn.

Understanding the Causes of Heartburn


9.1 Changes in digestive system with age

The digestive system undergoes natural changes as a person ages, which can impact the occurrence of heartburn. As individuals get older, the production of stomach acid decreases, which can result in reduced acid clearance and an increased likelihood of acid reflux. Additionally, the muscles in the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter can weaken over time, making it easier for stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus. These age-related changes contribute to the increased incidence of heartburn in older adults.

9.2 Increased risk of heartburn in older adults

Heartburn is more common among older adults, with factors such as age-related changes in the digestive system, underlying health conditions, and medication use contributing to the increased risk. Seniors may be more susceptible to heartburn due to reduced muscle tone, decreased stomach acid production, and an increased prevalence of certain conditions like hiatal hernias. It is important for older adults to be aware of these factors and take steps to manage heartburn symptoms effectively.

9.3 Management strategies for seniors

Seniors experiencing heartburn can benefit from a combination of lifestyle modifications and targeted treatments. Adopting dietary changes, such as avoiding trigger foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals, can help reduce heartburn symptoms. Maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco and alcohol are also crucial. Over-the-counter antacids and medications that reduce stomach acid production may provide relief for episodic heartburn. However, it is advisable for older adults to consult with their healthcare provider before starting or modifying any treatment regimen.

9.4 Importance of regular check-ups

Regular check-ups are important for older adults to monitor their overall health and address any potential underlying causes of heartburn. As seniors may be managing multiple health conditions and taking various medications, it is essential for healthcare providers to assess the impact of these factors on heartburn symptoms. Routine examinations can help identify any changes in digestive health and guide treatment plans accordingly. Open communication with healthcare professionals is vital in managing heartburn effectively and maintaining optimal well-being in older age.

Other underlying conditions

10.1 Asthma and respiratory disorders

Asthma and certain respiratory disorders can have a significant impact on the occurrence and severity of heartburn. The coughing and wheezing associated with these conditions can create pressure changes in the chest and abdomen, increasing the likelihood of acid reflux. Similarly, when individuals with asthma use bronchodilator medications, which help open airways, the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter can occur, promoting acid reflux. Managing asthma and respiratory disorders effectively can assist in minimizing heartburn symptoms.

10.2 Diabetes and metabolic syndrome

Diabetes and metabolic syndrome, characterized by insulin resistance and abnormal blood sugar levels, have been linked to an increased risk of developing heartburn. These conditions can affect the function of the lower esophageal sphincter and delay stomach emptying, allowing for prolonged acid reflux. Additionally, obesity, often associated with metabolic syndrome, can further contribute to the development of heartburn. Careful management of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, including blood sugar control and weight management, can help reduce the likelihood of heartburn.

10.3 Connective tissue disorders

Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can affect the esophagus and contribute to heartburn. These conditions can lead to the weakening or dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter, impairing its ability to prevent stomach acid from flowing back into the esophagus. Additionally, muscle and tissue abnormalities associated with connective tissue disorders can interfere with normal esophageal motility and cause difficulty swallowing. Treatment for heartburn in individuals with connective tissue disorders may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including the involvement of specialists in gastroenterology and rheumatology.

10.4 Impact on heartburn development

Underlying conditions such as asthma, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and connective tissue disorders can impact the development of heartburn by affecting the function of the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal motility, and stomach acid production. Individuals with these conditions may be more susceptible to heartburn and may require more targeted approaches for managing heartburn symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach involving the coordination of healthcare providers from different specialties can help address the underlying conditions and optimize heartburn treatment.

10.5 Treatment considerations

When managing heartburn in individuals with underlying conditions, it is important to consider potential interactions between medications and treatment strategies. Some medications used to manage underlying conditions, such as bronchodilators for asthma or antidiabetic medications, may influence the occurrence or severity of heartburn. Healthcare providers should be aware of these interactions and collaborate with individuals to develop a treatment plan that balances the management of heartburn symptoms with the treatment of the underlying condition. Regular communication and monitoring are essential to ensure optimal outcomes for individuals with heartburn and coexisting conditions.

'); var maf_after_2nd_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_3rd_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_4th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_5th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_6th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_7th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_8th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_9th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_10th_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_every_p_data = maf_decode_string(''); var maf_after_last_p_data = maf_decode_string('\"\"'); } $(document).ready(function(){ if(maf_header_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('header')[0]).append(maf_header_data); } if(maf_below_header_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('header')[0]).after(maf_below_header_data); } if(maf_above_header_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('header')[0]).before(maf_above_header_data); } if(maf_footer_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('footer')[0]).append(maf_footer_data); } if(maf_after_footer_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('footer')[0]).after(maf_after_footer_data); } if(maf_above_footer_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('footer')[0]).before(maf_above_footer_data); } if(maf_above_post_title_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('.entry-title')[0]).before(maf_above_post_title_data); } if(maf_below_post_title_data.trim() !== ''){ $($('.entry-title')[0]).after(maf_below_post_title_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[0] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_1st_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[0]).append(maf_after_1st_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[1] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_2nd_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[1]).append(maf_after_2nd_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[2] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_3rd_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[2]).append(maf_after_3rd_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[3] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_4th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[3]).append(maf_after_4th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[4] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_5th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[4]).append(maf_after_5th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[5] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_6th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[5]).append(maf_after_6th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[6] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_7th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[6]).append(maf_after_7th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[7] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_8th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[7]).append(maf_after_8th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[8] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_9th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[8]).append(maf_after_9th_p_data); } if(typeof $(all_p)[9] !== typeof undefined && maf_after_10th_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p)[9]).append(maf_after_10th_p_data); } $(all_p).each(function(i,v){ if(maf_after_every_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $(v).append(maf_after_every_p_data); } }); if(typeof $(all_p).last() !== typeof undefined && typeof maf_after_last_p_data !== typeof undefined && maf_after_last_p_data.trim() !== ''){ $($(all_p).last()[0]).append(maf_after_last_p_data); } }); function maf_decode_string(str){ str = str.replace('\'',"'"); str = str.replace('\"','"'); return str; }